Pirineos, Vol 175 (2020)

Los paisajes de viñedos. Historia y tendencias de la viticultura en casos de estudio de Eslovaquia


https://doi.org/10.3989/pirineos.2020.175006

Martina Slámová
Department of Landscape Planning and Design, Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Technical University in Zvolen, Eslovaquia
orcid https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5578-7993

Ingrid Belčáková
UNESCO Department for Ecological Awareness and Sustainable Development; Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Technical University in Zvolen, Eslovaquia
orcid https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4231-2737

Resumen


En Eslovaquia, el cultivo del viñedo se remonta a la época romana. Los entornos naturales limitan la distribución de los viñedos en zonas con orientación sur, principalmente en las tierras bajas y las estribaciones de los Cárpatos. Basándonos en un análisis DAFO, seleccionamos tres zonas de estudio en los que se evaluó la urbanización, restauración y abandono de viñedos en terrazas. Estas transformaciones suelen cambiar el carácter de los paisajes vitivinícolas en toda Europa. Los datos cuantitativos sobre viñedos a nivel nacional se adoptaron de la base de datos estadística nacional DATACube (1996-2018). Se accedió a los datos geográficos y a las estadísticas geográficas desde los servicios de mapas web del Consorcio Geoespacial nacional utilizando el Sistema de Información Geográfica QGIS. Se calcularon las estadísticas básicas para las diferentes áreas utilizando la información de los viñedos históricos (1952-1957), los viñedos actuales identificados en la base de datos de ZBGIS (2019) y las parcelas de viñedos registradas en el Catastro Real del Estado (2019). Los resultados demuestran que, en general, el área de viñedo disminuyó a nivel nacional. En una de las zonas de estudio se observó una disminución de los viñedos debido a los procesos de urbanización y de abandono de campos de cultivo, pero el viñedo permaneció en parcelas de pequeño tamaño, que aparecen como parcelas características de un paisaje vitícola tradicional con un gran potencial para el desarrollo de agroturismo. En las otras dos zonas de estudio, el área de viñedos aumentó: pequeñas parcelas vitivinícolas se fusionaron en parcelas medianas y se construyeron nuevas terrazas más modernas. Sin embargo, después de la concentración parcelaria, estas terrazas no aparecen registradas en el Catastro Real del Estado. No obstante, estos viñedos en terrazas bien mantenidos, ayudan a conservar el suelo y evitan los procesos de erosión.

Palabras clave


Terrazas con viñedo; paisaje tradicional; Cárpatos; reformas de consolidación de tierras; urbanización; restauración; abandono de tierras

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