Pirineos, Vol 174 (2019)

El abandono del pastoreo afecta negativamente a la calidad del pasto en pastizales atlánticos ibéricos


https://doi.org/10.3989/pirineos.2019.174002

Arantza Aldezabal
Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7917-7690

Usue Pérez-López
Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9081-7652

Nere Amaia Laskurain
Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9521-8584

Iñaki Odriozola
Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU - Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology of the CAS, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5289-7935

Resumen


La calidad del pasto en los pastizales de montaña es un factor importante para mantener o mejorar el rendimiento animal. Estudios previos han identificado atributos vegetales beneficiosos para la nutrición animal; sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre su mantenimiento en comunidades vegetales. Nuestra principal hipótesis sostiene que el pastoreo favorece a las especies con una alta capacidad de rebrote y una baja eficiencia de utilización de recursos, promoviendo así la producción de pasto de alta calidad. Para testar la hipótesis, realizamos un experimento de exclusión del pastoreo en un pastizal de la montaña atlántica, combinado con un marco teórico de respuesta-efecto basado en varios atributos vegetales y una metodología estadística apropiada para medir la contribución relativa del recambio de especies y la variabilidad intraespecífica de los atributos (ITV) tras el abandono del pastoreo. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la calidad del pasto disminuyó tras el abandono del pastoreo a corto plazo, principalmente debido al efecto de la ITV. Los efectos por recambio de especies podrían aparecer tras un período más largo de abandono si, tal y como es esperable, las gramíneas altas con tejidos de baja calidad nutritiva sustituyen a las especies de mayor calidad.

Palabras clave


Respuesta de la comunidad; atributos de efecto, calidad del forraje, exclusión de herbívoros, variabilidad intraespecífica, recambio de especies

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Referencias


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