Pirineos, Vol 169 (2014)

Caracterización genética y ambiental de poblaciones de Abies alba Mill. en su retaguardia occidental


https://doi.org/10.3989/Pirineos.2014.169007

D. Sancho-Knapik
Unidad de Recursos Forestales, Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria, Gobierno de Aragón, España

J. J. Peguero-Pina
Unidad de Recursos Forestales, Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria, Gobierno de Aragón, España

E. Cremer
Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting (ASP), Alemania

J. J. Camarero
ARAID, Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología (CSIC), España

Á. Fernández-Cancio
Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria, Departmento de Ecología y Genética Forestal, España

N. Ibarra
Unidad de la Salud de los Bosques, Gobierno de Aragón, España

M. Konnert
Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting (ASP), Alemania

E. Gil-Pelegrín
Unidad de Recursos Forestales, Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria, España

Resumen


Se ha caracterizado la estructura genética de diez poblaciones de Abies alba en la retaguardia occidental de su distribución en el Pirineo español en comparación con dos poblaciones de Alemania, buscando la influencia de factores climáticos en el decaimiento del abeto. También se caracterizó crecimiento, defoliación, aridez y déficit acumulado de agua durante el verano. Las poblaciones españolas mostraron una menor diversidad genética y una mayor diferenciación genética que las poblaciones alemanas, establecida principalmente a través de un eje Este (mayor diversidad)-Oeste (menor diversidad). Las tres poblaciones con defoliación son las del suroeste, con mayor aridez estival. Por el contrario, la población más meridional (Guara) muestra variables climáticas cercanas a estas poblaciones del suroeste pero sin defoliación y con mayor diversidad genética, indicando una posible adaptación a las condiciones sub-Mediterráneas. El abeto blanco en el Pirineo español constituye una retaguardia estable debido a su aislamiento, pequeño tamaño y baja diversidad genética. Las poblaciones más occidentales, bajo mayor aridez y con una diversidad genética más baja, son propensas a una mortalidad inducida por la sequía en un contexto de calentamiento global.

Palabras clave


Decaimiento; sequía; diversidad genética; abeto blanco; Pirineos

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